Catastrophizing, Anxiety, and Depression in Patients with Chronic Non-Malignant Pain

Iva Dimitrijević, Martina Knez


The aim of this study was to determine the level of anxiety
and depression and the intensity of pain in patients with
chronic non-malignant pain, the correlation of
catastrophizing with these factors, and the interaction of a
multidisciplinary program for the treatment of chronic pain
and the level of catastrophizing, anxiety, depression and pain
intensity. The study was conducted on a sample of 44
participants aged 32 to 80 years who participated in the
multidisciplinary program for chronic pain management at
the Institute for Pain Management of the Clinical Medical
Center Osijek. Pain intensity was measured using the Visual
Analog Scale (VAS); the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale
(DASS-21) was used to measure anxiety and depression;
while catastrophizing was measured using the Pain
Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). There was a moderate positive
correlation between anxiety, depression, and pain intensity in
patients with chronic non-malignant pain; a positive
correlation between anxiety, depression, pain intensity, and
catastrophic factors; and a reduction of anxiety, depression,
pain intensity and catastrophization at the end of a
multidisciplinary chronic pain treatment program. The
findings contribute to a better understanding of the relation
between emotional distress, cognitions and pain intensity in
patients with chronic non-malignant pain.


chronic pain; anxiety; depression; catastrophization

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Print ISSN 1330-0288 | Online ISSN 1848-6096