Friends-and-Neighbours Effect at the 2020 Parliamentary Elections in Croatia

Mislav Stjepan Čagalj, Branimir Vukosav, Denis Radoš


The candidacy of prominent local political leaders in
parliamentary elections is a common strategy by which parties
and independent lists strive to achieve the best possible election
results. A number of studies indicate the phenomenon of
stronger voter support for candidates in a place or area where
they are actually from, as well as in neighbouring areas. The
mentioned phenomenon in the geography of elections is known
as friends-and-neighbours (F&N) effect. Regression analysis was
used to explain spatial distribution of the results of the
parliamentary elections in the Republic of Croatia in 2020. The
results of the regression models, among other things,
demonstrated that voter preferences are not reflected exclusively
through the prism of preferential votes, but also through
increased electoral support for parties and independent lists that
nominate local leaders. The so-called F&N effect is generally
more noticeable in smaller municipalities.


geography of elections; friends-and-neighbours effect; regression analysis; Croatia; parliamentary elections

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